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The paper presents a cognitive science framework for the analysis of knowledge-based systems, including people, media, simulation and expert systems, resulting in a practical model for the procedures of knowledge engineering. Starting with the construct of a social organization model driven by anticipation and then differentiating this into pesonal scientists with diverse relations to people and their internal and external communication, it provides powerful and general model of society, people, and the roles of people in society. This model extends naturally to the role of conventional media in the knowledge processes of society and the new roles of computer-based simulation and expert systems. In particular it provides a model of knowledge transfer that enables the processes of knowledge engineering to be analyzed and automated.