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This paper presents a predictive control scheme of DC-link voltage for back-to-back converters based on energy balance modeling. Since the variation of DC-link voltage is affected by the energy mismatch between rectifier and inverter, the energy distribution in a rectifier-inverter is analyzed. Moreover, in order to calculate the input and output energy in one control period accurately, the grid current is regulated by predictive control and the instantaneous active power consumed by the induction motor is estimated. Then, an equation based on energy balance in one control period is established, and the DC-link voltage can be controlled by solving it. Finally, simulation results show that with the proposed control scheme, the back-to-back converter exhibits both good dynamic and steady-state performances.