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The new rural social insurance system has been implemented in pilot areas across China since 2009. To verify the effects and potential risk of the pilot program, we selected seven indicators, used the survey data from twelve Chinese provinces and empirically assessed risk disparity between different regions. It also reflects the score status of three common factors: rural resident factor, system performance factor and external capital factor. The paper hereby holds that we need to link up rural social insurance policies, advance the program according to different regions, rationally plan the responsibility of the Central and local finance for subsidy expenditure in new rural old-age insurance and promote the full coverage of new rural old-age insurance in a step-by-step manner.