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The recent wave of sensor-rich, Internet-enabled, smart mobile devices such as the Apple iPhone has opened the door for a novel paradigm for monitoring the urban landscape known as participatory sensing. Using this paradigm, ordinary citizens can collect multi-modal data streams from the surrounding environment using their mobile devices and share the same using existing communication infrastructure (e.g., 3G service or WiFi access points). The data contributed from multiple participants can be combined to build a spatiotemporal view of the phenomenon of interest and also to extract important community statistics. Given the ubiquity of mobile phones and the high density of people in metropolitan areas, participatory sensing can achieve an unprecedented level of coverage in both space and time for observing events of interest in urban spaces. Several exciting participatory sensing applications have emerged in recent years. For example, GPS traces uploaded by drivers and passengers can be used to generate real time traffic statistics. Similarly, street-level audio samples collected by pedestrians can be aggregated to create a citywide noise map. In this advanced seminar, we will provide a comprehensive overview of this new and exciting paradigm and outline the major research challenges.