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This paper describes a method of estimating irregularities in railway tracks using acceleration data measured from high-speed trains. Track irregularities are the main causes of the vibration of high-speed trains and thus should be carefully monitored to maintain the stability and ride quality of the trains. A mixed filtering approach is proposed for stable displacement estimation and waveband classification of the irregularities in the measured acceleration. Accelerometers are mounted on the axle box and the bogie of a high-speed train to measure the acceleration in the lateral and vertical directions. The estimated results are compared with those of a commercial track geometry measurement system. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach and the relationship between the mounted location of the accelerometers and the estimated track irregularities are discussed.