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Autonomous Distributed V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) Satisfying Scheduled Charging

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6 Author(s)

To integrate large scale renewable energy sources in the power grid, the battery energy storage performs an important role for smoothing their natural intermittency and ensuring grid-wide frequency stability. Electric vehicles have not only large introduction potential but also much available time for control because they are almost plugged in the home outlets as distributed battery energy storages. Therefore, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is expected to be one of the key technologies in smart grid strategies. This paper proposes an autonomous distributed V2G control scheme. A grid-connected electric vehicle supplies a distributed spinning reserve according to the frequency deviation at the plug-in terminal, which is a signal of supply and demand imbalance in the power grid. As a style of EV utilization, it is assumed that vehicle use set next plug-out timing in advance. In such assumption, user convenience is satisfied by performing a scheduled charging for the plug-out, and plug-in idle time is available for the V2G control. Therefore a smart charging control is considered in the proposed scheme. Satisfaction of vehicle user convenience and effect to the load frequency control is evaluated through a simulation by using a typical two area interconnected power grid model and an automotive lithium-ion battery model.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 1 )