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This paper proposes an effective scale- and rotation-invariant local binary pattern (LBP) feature for texture classification. A circular neighboring set of an image pixel is defined as a scale-adaptive texton by taking into account the fundamental local structure property of the pixel. The scale space of a texture image is derived by the Laplacian of the Gaussian and then employed to determine the optimal scale of each pixel reflecting the characteristic length of the corresponding structure and determining the radius of the scale-adaptive texton. Different pixels have different optimal scales, resulting in the scale invariance. Contrary to the traditional LBP features that usually ignore global spatial information, the proposed method also defines subuniform patterns of each uniform pattern to improve the discrimination. For each uniform pattern, the subuniform pattern with the maximum statistical value is defined as the dominant orientation subuniform pattern. It is moved to the first column, and the others are circularly shifted. Experimental results demonstrate a good discrimination capability of the proposed scale- and rotation-invariant LBP in texture classification. Particularly, the LBP based on the scale-adaptive texton is promising to be powerful for texture description and scale-invariant texture classification, and the circular shift subuniform LBP can further improve the performance in the rotation-invariant texture classification.