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In this letter, a new study on the theory and the design of a dual-band dual-polarized high-gain resonant cavity antenna (RCA) is presented. The RCA includes two layers of orthogonal dipole arrays each located at a designated height above the ground plane of a microstrip patch antenna. A prototype is fabricated, and the measured results confirm the theory. The measured prototype has a lower-band gain of 19.6 dBi with the vertical polarization (V-pol) at 10 GHz and the upper band gain of 18 dBi with horizontal polarization (H-pol) at 11.6 GHz. The cross polarization (Xpol) is better than -27 dB at each band. It is demonstrated that the separation between the two bands is controlled arbitrarily.