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The electromyogram (EMG) is a common medical procedure that uses electrodes to detect and measure the electrical signals from muscle activity. A number of companies have been researching a myoelectric control system for persons with disabilities, but it is nearly impossible for nonmedical companies to obtain an EMG system. A promising alternative to intramuscular EMG is the measurement of surface myoelectric potential, which uses a very small number of electrodes. In this study, we were able to detect the electrical signals from muscle activity using only a small number of electrodes. We also measured the muscle function using an electromyogram and then analyzed the relationship between the surface electromyogram and the muscle movement. Moreover, we were able to see how body movements affected the measurement. Finally, we determined whether or not the proposed method provides sufficient credible data for use when an EMG is not available.