Skip to Main Content
This paper presents the design and optimization of ultra-wideband (UWB) transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennas for ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. The numerical simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation are performed in the time domain for a preliminary and modified TEM horn antenna. The TEM horn antennas have some reflections and ringing which are not suitable for GPR applications. These effects are reduced by optimization of the antenna structure. The time domain characteristic and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the antennas are computed. The optimized TEM horn antenna is then modeled with the typical GPR environment with earth, and the hidden object inside the earth. The presented antenna can be used in the GPR systems to detect and image buried objects, and for the characterization of the non-homogeneous layered structure.