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In this study a remote sensing approach for the mesquite tree (Prosopis juliflora) control is proposed. The mesquite tree is well known for its high adaptability to arid and semi-arid conditions and characterized by very high water use efficiency. Introduction of the mesquite has caused several environmental problems in Sudan. In this study to monitor mesquite water use efficiency the concept of a Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), which is defined as the ratio of actual to foliar water content, have been applied and compared with the ground measurements of stomatal conductance (mmol. m-2. s-1), field spectral, volumetric soil water content. As results, on the base of the PALSAR L-band microwave polarimetric backscatter coefficient, the soil moisture (in bare soil area) and surface roughness (in dense forest covered area) could be estimated with a good accuracy for bare-soil surfaces.