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The paper presents a general framework for the simultaneous modeling and assessment of aging and maintenance efficiency, for complex repairable systems. Both corrective and planned preventive maintenance actions are considered. The proposed framework takes into account both imperfect maintenance efficiency, through for instance virtual age models, and the usual preventive maintenance policies, such as periodic, sequential, age-dependent, and failure limit. The main properties of the general model are studied, and reliability indicators are derived. The model parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Finally, we present an application to real data sets issued from electricity production systems.