Skip to Main Content
An integrated CMOS amperometric instrument with on-chip electrodes and packaging for biosensor arrays is presented. The mixed-signal integrated circuit supports a variety of electrochemical measurement techniques including linear sweep, constant potential, cyclic and pulse voltammetry. Implemented in 0.5 μm CMOS, the 3 × mm2 chip dissipates 22.5 mW for a 200 kHz clock. The highly programmable chip provides a wide range of user-controlled stimulus rate and amplitude settings with a maximum scan range of 2 V and scan rates between 1 mV/sec and 400 V/sec. The amperometric readout circuit provides ±500 fA linear resolution and supports inputs up to ±47 μA. A 2 × 2 gold electrode array was fabricated on the surface of the CMOS instrumentation chip. An all-parylene packaging scheme was developed for compatibility with liquid test environments as well as a harsh piranha electrode cleaning process. The chip was tested using cyclic voltammetry of different concentrations of potassium ferricyanide at 100 mV/s and 200 mV/s, and results were identical to measurements using commercial instruments.