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High-speed parallel implementation of a modified PBR algorithm on DSP-based EH topology

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3 Author(s)
Rajan, K. ; Dept. of Phys., Indian Inst. of Sci., Bangalore, India ; Patnaik, L.M. ; Ramakrishna, J.

Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) is an age-old method used for solving the problem of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction from projections in electron microscopy and radiology. In medical applications, direct 3-D reconstruction is at the forefront of investigation. The simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) is an ART-type algorithm with the potential of generating in a few iterations tomographic images of a quality comparable to that of convolution backprojection (CBP) methods. Pixel-based reconstruction (PBR) is similar to SIRT reconstruction, and it has been shown that PBR algorithms give better quality pictures compared to those produced by SIRT algorithms. In this work, we propose a few modifications to the PBR algorithms. The modified algorithms are shown to give better quality pictures compared to PBR algorithms. The PBR algorithm and the modified PBR algorithms are highly compute intensive, Not many attempts have been made to reconstruct objects in the true 3-D sense because of the high computational overhead. In this study, we have developed parallel two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D reconstruction algorithms based on modified PBR. We attempt to solve the two problems encountered by the PBR and modified PBR algorithms, i.e., the long computational time and the large memory requirements, by parallelizing the algorithm on a multiprocessor system. We investigate the possible task and data partitioning schemes by exploiting the potential parallelism in the PBR algorithm subject to minimizing the memory requirement. We have implemented an extended hypercube (EH) architecture for the high-speed execution of the 3-D reconstruction algorithm using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PEs) and dual-port random access memories (DPR) as channels between the PEs. We discuss and compare the performances of the PBR algorithm on an IBM 6000 RISC workstation, on a Silicon Graphics Indigo 2 workstation, and on an EH system. The results show that an EH(3,1) using DSP chips as PEs executes the modified PBR algorithm about 100 times faster than an LBM 6000 RISC workstation. We have executed the algorithms on a 4-node IBM SP2 parallel computer. The results show that execution time of the algorithm on an EH(3,1) is better than that of a 4-node IBM SP2 system. The speed-up of an EH(3,1) system with eight PEs and one network controller is approximately 7.85

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 4 )