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In order to overcome the poor anti-noise performance of traditional fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm in image segmentation, a novel improved FCM algorithm was proposed in this paper based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and Markov Random Field (MRF) model, which can make full use of the global searching ability of PSO and the spatial information integrating ability of MRF for image segmentation. In this algorithm, the image segmentation is converted to a PSO optimization problem, in which the fitness function is set up to containing the spatial information based on the spectral value and the neighboring pixels modeled by MRFs. And segmentation results can be iteratively obtained during the PSO iterations according to the newly designed membership function of FCM in which the spatial information is integrated. The experiments herein reported in this paper illustrate the better performance of this algorithm than the traditional FCM algorithm and the PSO algorithm for image segmentation.