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This paper proposes an energy-efficient algorithm, which can control the sensor nodes around target to transform status, according to the target's speed and direction, in order to reduce the number of the working nodes, extend the life of the target tracking system. In addition, we advance a distributed boundary coverage algorithm. The simulations show that this algorithm can greatly reduce the number of working nodes, communications volume and computations. The algorithm can lower energy consumptions of wireless sensor networks under the premise of target tracking's accuracy and reliability.