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In order to solve the strapdown inertial navigation system (INS) alignment problem under the marine mooring condition, the rapid strapdown INS fine alignment method is proposed. This method uses the gravity in the inertial frame to deal with the lineal and angular disturbances. Also the forward and backward processes for strapdown INS calculation and filter estimation are designed. Making use of the forward and backward processes to repeatedly process the saved inertial measurement unit (IMU) data sequence could quickly obtain the initial strapdown attitude matrix. Simulation and trial test validate the performance of the proposed rapid fine strapdown INS alignment.