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Scanning capacitance microscopy is used to characterize the electronic properties of ErAs nanoparticles embedded in GaAs pn junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Voltage-dependent capacitance images reveal localized variations in subsurface electronic structure near buried ErAs nanoparticles at lateral length scales of 20-30 nm. Numerical modeling indicates that these variations arise from inhomogeneities in charge modulation due to Fermi level pinning behavior associated with the embedded ErAs nanoparticles. Statistical analysis of image data yields an average particle radius of 6-8 nm—well below the direct resolution limit in scanning capacitance microscopy but discernible via analysis of patterns in nanoscale capacitance images.