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The Paradigm Shift in Understanding the Bias Temperature Instability: From Reaction–Diffusion to Switching Oxide Traps

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11 Author(s)
Grasser, T. ; Inst. for Microelectron., Tech. Univ. Wien, Vienna, Austria ; Kaczer, B. ; Goes, W. ; Reisinger, H.
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One of the most important degradation modes in CMOS technologies, the bias temperature instability (BTI) has been known since the 1960s. Already in early interpretations, charge trapping in the oxide was considered an important aspect of the degradation. In their 1977 paper, Jeppson and Svensson suggested a hydrogen-diffusion controlled mechanism for the creation of interface states. Their reaction-diffusion model subsequently became the dominant explanation of the phenomenon. While Jeppson and Svensson gave a preliminary study of the recovery of the degradation, this issue received only limited attention for many years. In the last decade, however, a large number of detailed recovery studies have been published, showing clearly that the reaction-diffusion mechanism is inconsistent with the data. As a consequence, the research focus shifted back toward charge trapping. Currently available advanced charge-trapping theories based on switching oxide traps are now able to explain the bulk of the experimental data. We give a review of our perspective on some selected developments in this area.

Published in:

Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:58 ,  Issue: 11 )

Date of Publication:

Nov. 2011

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