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Breast cancer is anticipated to be responsible for almost 40,000 deaths in the USA in 2011. The current clinical detection techniques suffer from limitations which motivated researchers to investigate alternative modalities for the early detection of breast cancer. This paper focuses on reviewing the main electromagnetic techniques for breast cancer detection. More specifically, this work reviews the cutting edge research in microwave imaging, electrical impedance tomography, diffuse optical tomography, microwave radiometry, biomagnetic detection, biopotential detection, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The goal of this paper is to provide biomedical researchers with an in-depth review that includes all main electromagnetic techniques in the literature and the latest progress in each of these techniques.