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We demonstrate a spectrally broadband and efficient technique for collecting emission from a single InAs quantum dot directly into a standard single mode optical fiber. In this approach, an optical fiber taper waveguide is placed in contact with a suspended GaAs nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum dots, forming a broadband directional coupler with standard optical fiber input and output. Efficient photoluminescence collection over a wavelength range of tens of nanometers is demonstrated, and a maximum collection efficiency of 6% (corresponding single photon rate of 3.0 MHz) into a single mode optical fiber is estimated for a single quantum dot exciton.