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In this paper, we have investigated the mode patterns in real space and reciprocal space, and threshold gain at different band edges in GaN-based photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) by using the multiple-scattering method. The characteristics at each band edge (Γ1 , K2, and M3) of PCSELs are simulated and discussed. In addition, GaN-based PCSELs operated at different band edges have been fabricated and measured. The experimental results of threshold show good agreement with the simulation results.