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Sensor systems typically operate under resource constraints that prevent the simultaneous use of all resources all of the time. Sensor management becomes relevant when the sensing system has the capability of actively managing these resources; i.e., changing its operating configuration during deployment in reaction to previous measurements. Examples of systems in which sensor management is currently used or is likely to be used in the near future include autonomous robots, surveillance and reconnaissance networks, and waveform-agile radars. This paper provides an overview of the theory, algorithms, and applications of sensor management as it has developed over the past decades and as it stands today.