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Node localization of the network is the basis for the applications of wireless sensor network, therefore in the wireless sensor network's each research direction, and the node localization had already become a very important research direction. The beginning chapters of this thesis introduce the knowledge of wireless sensor network and genetic algorithms. The Chapter of this thesis proposes a genetic algorithm based node localization algorithm of wireless sensor network. Firstly, the algorithm gives the encoding method of node. Then through the relations between the unknown nodes and datum node's correspondence restraint, the optimizing function taking the unknown node position as the parameter is established and the fitness function is designed. And then the corresponding crossover and mutation operators and a algorithm preventing premature are presented. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is validated through the simulation.