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In multi-hop wireless sensor networks, the nodes closest to the sink tend to deplete their energy faster than other nodes, which is known as energy-hole problem. To address this problem, we first study the mobile sink model, and conclude the best mobility strategy. We then consider jointly sink mobility and node deployment, and formulate optimization problems that maximize the network lifetime subject to energy depletion balance. Finally, we propose a non-uniform node deployment strategy for periodical data gathering in sensor networks. Simulation experiments show that the proposed deployment strategy outperforms random deployment better scalability and longer network lifetime.