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Because of the developing environment, the occurring conditions and the randomness, uncertainty and fuzziness of mine water inrush, it is a very complex nonlinear system to determination of mine water inrush sources. Artificial neural network is of the stronger self-organization, self-adaptability and self-learning capability, which is specially suited to solve nonlinear problems. In the paper, we analyzed fristly the chemical characteristic of aquifer of certain mine. 78 samples of pit water as the training sample survey and other 31 samples of pit water as test samples, BP neural network based on Matlab was set up and applied in the mine water to determine of mine water inrush sources. The model gains a better application in practical projects and the accuracy of the assessment is above 90%. It is simple and its assessment results are note easily affected by the human factors. So BP neural network based on Matlab is effective and is worth to popularization and application to determine of mine water inrush sources.