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Construction safety management system from the concern of reliability was set up by using the knowledge of reliability. Reliability request of each unit of the first layer in system was decided according to the given value of system safety target by combining reliability allocation theory with fault tree analysis (FTA), and then reliability was reallocated by minimization of effort algorithm among each unit of the second layer, and so on. Thus, a quantitative model for calculating the reliability of each component in system was set up. The method was demonstrated by an example. It shows that reliability allocation theory can be successfully applied in the field of construction safety and can conveniently fulfill the optimization of system safety under the condition of a given target so as to ensure construction safety and reduce the accident loss.