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Bundle: A Group-Based Programming Abstraction for Cyber-Physical Systems

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4 Author(s)
Vicaire, P.A. ; Elastic Comput. Cloud Div., Amazon Web Services, Seattle, WA, USA ; Hoque, E. ; Zhiheng Xie ; Stankovic, J.A.

This paper describes a novel group-based programming abstraction called a “Bundle” for cyber-physical systems (CPS). Similar to other programming abstractions, a Bundle creates logical collections of sensing devices. However, previous abstractions were focused on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and did not address key aspects of CPS. Bundles elevate the programming domain from a single WSN to complex systems of systems by allowing the programming of applications involving multiple CPSs that are controlled by different administrative domains and support mobility both within and across CPSs. Bundles can seamlessly group not only sensors, but also actuators which constitute an important part of CPS. They enable programming in a multiuser environment with fine grained access right control and conflict resolution mechanism. Bundles support heterogeneous devices, such as motes, PDAs, laptops, and actuators according to the applications' requirements. They allow different applications to simultaneously use the same sensors and actuators. Bundles facilitate feedback control mechanisms by dynamic membership update and requirements reconfiguration based on feedback from the current members. The Bundle abstraction is implemented in Java which ensures ease and conciseness of programming. We present the design and implementation details of Bundles as well as a performance evaluation using 32 applications written with Bundles. This set includes across-network applications that have sophisticated sensing and actuation logic, mobile nodes that are heterogeneous, and feedback control mechanisms. Each of these applications is programmed in less than 60 lines of code.

Published in:

Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 2 )