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This paper presents an adaptive neural network observer based fault-tolerant control approach to a class of uncertain nonlinear system. This approach can not only deal with the unknown nonlinear faults from the actuators, but also from the plant. Moreover, the scheme can be easily implemented in the control engineering by relaxing the fault-tolerant control law. The uniform ultimate boundedness of the fault estimation error vector and the asymptotical stability of the closed-loop fault-tolerant control system are guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control scheme.