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A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck and its optimized control is studied. The fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid electric truck system is modeled, together with basic features and dynamic equations of subsystem components. The static optimization and the dynamic programming-based optimization algorithm are designed and evaluated. Simulation results over the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the real driving statistics demonstrate the potential of the significant improvement in the fuel economy, and the improvement is greater when the dynamic programming power management algorithm is applied than static optimized algorithm.