Skip to Main Content
Distributed space-time block codes (DSTBCs) from complex orthogonal designs (CODs) (both square and nonsquare), coordinate interleaved orthogonal designs (CIODs), and Clifford unitary weight designs (CUWDs) are known to lose their single-symbol ML decodable (SSD) property when used in two-hop wireless relay networks using amplify and forward protocol. For such networks, in this paper, three new classes of high rate, training-symbol embedded (TSE) SSD DSTBCs are constructed: TSE-CODs, TSE-CIODs, and TSE-CUWDs. The proposed codes include the training symbols inside the structure of the code which is shown to be the key point to obtain the SSD property along with the channel estimation capability. TSE-CODs are shown to offer full-diversity for arbitrary complex constellations and the constellations for which TSE-CIODs and TSE-CUWDs offer full-diversity are characterized. It is shown that DSTBCs from nonsquare TSE-CODs provide better rates (in symbols per channel use) when compared to the known SSD DSTBCs for relay networks. Important from the practical point of view, the proposed DSTBCs do not contain any zeros in their codewords and as a result, antennas of the relay nodes do not undergo a sequence of switch on/off transitions within every codeword, and, thus, avoid the antenna switching problem.