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Studied the transient thermal transfer analysis method due to a kind of supersonic ellipsoidal dome, which is a conformal dome. Illuminated the principle of transient thermal transfer analysis. Accomplished the transient thermal analysis based on the model of ellipsoidal dome, and studied the influence about the different material and the different velocity. Considered three materials consist of MgF2, Al2O3, and ZnS, and meanwhile, the velocity was Mach2.5, and the time consists of 10s, 20s and 60s. The temperature initial loads were from FLUENT thermal simulation. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal convection analysis were finished in software ANSYS, in which the entire transient thermal analysis consists of modeling, meshing element, calculating and getting the results. The different temperature distributions based on varied time were gotten about the different materials. The results from analysis showed the temperature distribution of the structure of ellipsoidal dome, which could help the following coupled thermal-structure analysis.