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Motion Measurement Using Inertial Sensors, Ultrasonic Sensors, and Magnetometers With Extended Kalman Filter for Data Fusion

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2 Author(s)
He Zhao ; Inst. of Microelectron., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China ; Zheyao Wang

Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are widely used in motion measurement. However, the drift of IMUs results in significant accumulated errors for long-term position and orientation measurement. This paper reports a method to compensate the drift of inertial sensors with the assist of ultrasonic sensors and magnetometers. The magnetometer is combined with a three-axis accelerometer as a digital compass for orientation determination in static state by measuring the gravity and the earth's magnetic field vectors. A three-axis gyroscope is used to measure the orientation in dynamic state to complement the digital compass. Displacement determination is implemented using the accelerometer through double integration, and an ultrasonic sensor is employed to periodically calibrate the accumulated errors of the accelerometer. The redundant data from the multi-sensors are fused using extended Kalman filter (EKF), in which the position measured by the ultrasonic sensor and the orientation measured by the digital compass are defined as the observation values, and the position, velocity, and orientation are included in the state vector. Experimental results show that the accumulated errors of inertial sensors are reduced by ultrasonic sensors and magnetometers, and EKF improves the accuracy of orientation and position measurements.

Published in:

Sensors Journal, IEEE  (Volume:12 ,  Issue: 5 )