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A 1550-nm high-speed, high efficiency, and narrow-linewidth resonant cavity enhanced photodetector with three resonant cavities is demonstrated. The photodetector, operating at a long wavelength, is monolithically integrated by using a heteroepitaxy growth of an InP-based p-i-n structure on the GaAs-based multiple resonant cavities. High-quality heteroepitaxy was realized by employing a thin low-temperature buffer layer. A peak quantum efficiency value of 70%, a spectral response linewidth less than 0.75 nm (full-width at half-maximum), and a 3-dB bandwidth of 36 GHz were simultaneously obtained in the device.