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The purpose of this paper was to evaluate attributes derived from fully polarimetric PALSAR data to discriminate and map macrophyte species in the Amazon floodplain wetlands. Field work was carried out almost simultaneously to the radar acquisition, and macrophyte biomass and morphological variables were measured in the field. Attributes were calculated from the covariance matrix [C] derived from the single-look complex data. Image attributes and macrophyte variables were compared and analyzed to investigate the sensitivity of the attributes for discriminating among species. Based on these analyses, a rule-based classification was applied to map macrophyte species. Other classification approaches were tested and compared to the rule-based method: a classification based on the Freeman-Durden and Cloude-Pottier decomposition models, a hybrid classification (Wishart classifier with the input classes based on the H/a plane), and a statistical based classification (supervised classification using Wishart distance measures). The findings show that attributes derived from fully polarimetric L-band data have good potential for discriminating herbaceous plant species based on morphology and that estimation of plant biomass and productivity could be improved by using these polarimetric attributes.