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An overview of ferromagnetic nanowire (FMNW) metamaterials is presented. First, FMNW metamaterials are placed in the historical context of antique composites and 20th Century artificial dielectrics, and presented as an example of second-generation metamaterials following the microstructured metamaterials developed in the first part of the decade. Next, the fabrication processes of FMNW metamaterials and subsequent planar devices are detailed. It is then shown how the geometrical properties of the FMNW structure, such as the wire diameter and the wire nanodisk thicknesses, determine the dc and RF responses of the material. Upon this basis, the modeling of the metamaterial is presented, using a two-level approach where the microscopic (with respect to the wires) susceptibility is derived by solving the Landau-Lifshitz equation and the macroscopic (metamaterial) permittivity and permeability tensors are obtained by effective medium theory. Next, a review of FMNW microwave devices, such as circulators, isolators, and phase shifters, is provided, and the example of an FMNW dual-band edge-mode isolator is studied. Finally, spintronic effects and applications of FMNW metamaterials, such as dc to RF generators and detectors based on the spin-torque transfer phenomenon, are reviewed.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:59 , Issue: 10 )
Date of Publication: Oct. 2011