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ATPG based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) turned out to be a robust alternative to classical structural automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) algorithms performing very well especially for hard-to-detect faults but suffer from the overhead for easy-to-detect faults. In this letter, we propose new efficient data structures and methodologies for SAT-based ATPG. The novel incremental SAT solving technique dynamic clause activation which makes use of structural information using dedicated data structures forms the core of a new flexible SAT-based ATPG approach. Experimental results on large industrial circuits show a significant performance gain and a removal of the limitations. At the same time, the robustness of SAT-based ATPG can even be strengthened resulting in very high fault efficiency and increased fault coverage for transition faults.