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Finite mixture model based on the Student's-t distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than Gaussian, has recently received great attention for image segmentation. A new finite Student's-t mixture model (SMM) is proposed in this paper. Existing models do not explicitly incorporate the spatial relationships between pixels. First, our model exploits Dirichlet distribution and Dirichlet law to incorporate the local spatial constrains in an image. Secondly, we directly deal with the Student's-t distribution in order to estimate the model parameters, whereas, the Student's-t distributions in previous models are represented as an infinite mixture of scaled Gaussians that lead to an increase in complexity. Finally, instead of using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, the proposed method adopts the gradient method to minimize the higher bound on the data negative log-likelihood and to optimize the parameters. The proposed model is successfully compared to the state-of-the-art finite mixture models. Numerical experiments are presented where the proposed model is tested on various simulated and real medical images.