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Recently, broadband optical access networks were being deployed worldwide to deliver large bandwidth to end users. Currently, the operators have been mainly deploying time-division multiplexing (TDM) passive optical networks (PON) in their networks. As bandwidth demand continues to increase, the industry further selected several next generation optical access (NGA) options to upgrade from current TDM-PON architectures. Besides increasing bandwidth requirement, current TDM-PONs suffers from limited reach and split-ratio. To further reduce the capital and operational expenditure requirements of current TDM-PON, NGA architectures must consolidate the number of central office sites. Long-reach optical access (LROA) architectures are promising solutions that employ optical amplifiers to increase optical budget to support longer reach and higher split-ratio in the distribution network. As more end users are supported over shared physical medium in LROA, access network security is of greater importance. The first part of this article reviews important LROA architectures and their enabling technologies. Moreover, few works in current literature address security weaknesses in LROA. The second part of this article reviews these security weaknesses as well as monitoring and control techniques employed in current TDM-PONs. In addition, a novel class of quasi-passive and reconfigurable devices is presented that addresses aforementioned security weaknesses and is suitable for LROA.