Skip to Main Content
Federating Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in Outdoor Environment Monitoring (OEM) becomes a necessity as advances in sensing technologies are achieved. Where several WSN sectors pursuing identical/different tasks intend to collaborate with each other in order to achieve more sophisticated and challenging missions, or intend to recover a significant damage in the network. Connecting (federating) these sectors is an intricate task due to the huge distances between the sectors, and the harsh operational conditions. A natural choice in defeating these challenges is to have multiple relay nodes that provide vast coverage areas and sustain the network connectivity in harsh environments. However, these relays are expensive and thus, the least number of such devices has to be populated. In this paper, we propose a grid-based deployment for relay nodes in which the relays are efficiently placed on the grid vertices to connect the disjointed WSN sectors. Towards this efficiency, we design an Optimized Relay Placement (ORP) approach that maximizes the disjointed sectors connectivity while maintaining cost constraints. The performance of the proposed approach is validated and assessed through extensive simulations and comparisons assuming practical considerations in outdoor environments.