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Three dimensional (3D) semiconductor circuit integration has been an active area of research recently. Part of the driving force behind this interest has been applications. In this paper, we identify applications that drive 3D integration and point out the challenges they bring. In particular, we focus on through silicon via-based (TSV-based) 3D integration. TSV-based 3D integration opens up a new genre, and new opportunities for semiconductor integrated circuits. After a brief overview of TSV-based 3D technology overview, we identify driver applications that are dominant in this transition. We then point out challenges in the manufacturing area, i.e., thermal, reliability, EDA, cost, and test.