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Spatial query is the core function of GIS analysis, the query data is mostly geometric point, line, polygon which has the location information and formatted query condition is a variety of spatial relationships. We focus on the spatial query efficiency improvement with the query data in case of large and complex, and propos an effective spatial adaptive grid index filter algorithm for spatial query. It is different from the commonly used uniform grid index algorithm as it constructs the adaptive grid index of data using the spatial distribution information then it can radically improve the efficiency of spatial query. This algorithm contains four steps, including boundary grid index construction, internal grid index construction, primary spatial query and advanced spatial query. It is realized by C++ language and verified by experiments, the spatial query efficiency than the traditional uniform grid index algorithm has significantly increased.