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On the basis of two substrate materials which possess similar atomic mass but different physical and chemical properties (e.g., sputtering yield and susceptibility for carbide formation), the treatment effects of methane plasma source ion implantation are compared. Tungsten and gold underwent implantation by the use of high voltage pulses of -20 kV in a methane atmosphere of 1 Pa. Differences in the formed surface structure, in implantation layer thickness and lateral distribution of the implanted species, and in surface properties such as friction coefficient and hardness are analyzed. The dependence of the surface modifications on the treatment conditions and on the substrate properties is described.