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A new path planning approach based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) for an amphibious mouse robot is presented. In conventional path planning methods, the length of the path is the principal factor, but with the amphibious mouse robot side, other factors (especially the influence of liquid) must be taken into consideration. In this paper, an improved PSO is proposed, which fitness function is the weighted sum of the path length, and the influence of liquid is introduced to find a global optimized path. Series simulation results demonstrate that the approach is feasible and effective.