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A method estimating the position of the rotor based on arithmetic model of the motor was presented. In this method, mathematical mode of PMSM was regarded as reference model. By detecting the phase current of PMSM, the real position of the rotor of PMSM is calculated. Simulation and experimental results proved that the proposed method was capable of precisely estimating the rotor position and speed. It also achieved good static and dynamic speed. And also the parameters are fixed according to this method, so the simulation model of the whole PMSM speed servo is more precise.