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The trajectory tracking control problem of nonholonomic mobile robots with uncertain dynamics and uncertain visual parameters is addressed in this paper. A novel visual feedback control model is proposed. Its tracking controller is independent of uncalibrated visual parameters by using new methods. This controller consists of two units, one is an adaptive control for compensation of the uncertainties of dynamic parameters, the other is a variable structure control for the interference suppression. In addition, the torque tracking controller is global and smooth, and the chattering phenomenon is eliminated. The stability of the proposed control system is rigorously proved through the Lyapunov method. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the control law.