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In this paper, we have investigated the relationship between the depolarization effects and the wintertime sea ice thickness in the landfast ice region where smooth thick first-year ice (FYI) and deformed old ice coexisted by using C- and X-band spaceborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data (RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X). We have found a strong correlation between the in situ sea ice thickness and the SAR-derived depolarization factors (copolarized correlation and cross-polarized ratio). The observed relationships have demonstrated not only a categorical difference between FYI and multiyear ice (MYI) but also a one-to-one continuity in the scatter plots, rather than being clustered. It clearly shows that the observed correlations are not merely from the categorical difference in scattering mechanism between FYI and MYI and that there might exist a one-to-one relationship between thickness and depolarization factors at least in our deformed ice case. This suggests that depolarization factors could be effective SAR parameters in the estimation of wintertime sea ice thickness. Numerical model simulations explained some portions of the correlation by employing multiple scattering on the sea ice surface and volume scattering within the low-density subsurface layer.