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[Purpose]Soil moisture is a main limiting factor to influence vegetation restoration in loess plateau. Studying the impact of environmental factors on spatial distribution of soil water resource from regional scale can make it easier to understand the relationship between vegetation restoration and eco-environment construction, which can provide theoretical basis about soil water resource effective utilization and management. [Method]Taken Yanhe river basin as a study area, methods of variance analysis and multiple comparison was used to analyze the influence of climate, topography and land use type on soil moisture. [Result] The results are as follows: annual average temperature rainfall has significant influence on soil moisture with soil of 0~40cm and 40~140 cm depth, and annual average temperature has significant influence on soil moisture with soil of 40~140cm and 40~200 cm depth with their interaction having significant on all study layers; only slope aspect in topographic factors has significant influence on soil moisture with soil of 0~40cm and 40~140 cm depth; land use types have significant on all study layers. [Conclusions] Reasonable land use pattern is the key for high efficiency utilization of soil moisture and vegetation restoration.