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Architecting software systems according to the service-oriented paradigm and designing runtime self-adaptable systems are two relevant research areas in today's software engineering. In this paper, we address issues that lie at the intersection of these two important fields. First, we present a characterization of the problem space of self-adaptation for service-oriented systems, thus providing a frame of reference where our and other approaches can be classified. Then, we present MOSES, a methodology and a software tool implementing it to support QoS-driven adaptation of a service-oriented system. It works in a specific region of the identified problem space, corresponding to the scenario where a service-oriented system architected as a composite service needs to sustain a traffic of requests generated by several users. MOSES integrates within a unified framework different adaptation mechanisms. In this way it achieves greater flexibility in facing various operating environments and the possibly conflicting QoS requirements of several concurrent users. Experimental results obtained with a prototype implementation of MOSES show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.