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Location information of nodes is the basis for many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most previous localization methods make the unrealistic assumptions: (i) all nodes in WSN are always awake and (ii) the radio range of nodes is an ideal circle. This overlooks the common scenario that sensor nodes are duty-cycled in order to save energy and the radio range of nodes is irregular. In this paper we revisit the Distance-Vector-based (DV-based) positioning algorithms, particularly, Hop-Count-Ratio based Localization (HCRL) algorithm and investigate the following problems: (i) how is the relationship between the number of sleeping neighbor sensor nodes and the localization accuracy and (ii) how is the relationship between the degree of irregularity (DOI, which is a parameter of radio range irregularity) and the localization accuracy. We conduct a large number of experiments in WSNs' simulator NetTopo, and find that the parameters: the number of waking nodes, DOI, anchor node density and localization error, are interactional, i.e., for a given deployed static WSN, there is an optimal number of waking nodes and an optimal anchor node density, which can minimize network energy consumption without losing much of the localization accuracy. Furthermore, waking up more sensor nodes cannot always help to increase the localization accuracy, which actually is different from our intuitive thinking: more waking nodes can help to increase the localization accuracy of DV-based localization algorithms at all time.
Date of Conference: 5-9 June 2011